Hometown: Tbilisi, Georgia
Web site: http://www.opera.ge/
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Tbilisi Zakaria Paliashvili State Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet is a certain symbol of the many-centuries original culture of Georgia. It has a long history of existence. 2001 has seen the 150th jubilee of this Theatre. Foundation of the opera theatre in Georgia was the reflection and continuation of those general political and cultural processes, which involved the country after its annexation by the Russian Empire. These processes proved to be very fruitful in the aspect of the cultural life and activation of the national and educational movements. The Chief Governor of the Caucasus, appointed in Georgia in 1844, the general and field marshal, a very long-sighted diplomat, earl Mikhail Vorontsov has laid foundations of many cultural enterprises. Amongst the the most important was introduction of the interest with the genre of opera in Georgia. In 1845 he invited from Stavropol a group of artists under the leadership of Yatsenko, rendering a special stage to them. With this purpose Yatsenko used the building of mančge, which he had rebuilt into the opera stage. So there has been created the theatre direction, comprising nine persons. The team has started spectacles since the 20th September 1845. Representations were carried out twice a week and they were mainly composed of vodevilles and comedies. In the season of 1845-46 years Kamenski and Petrov used to be conductors, then Malagan and Shening were invited. On 15 September 1846 under the leadership of Malagan overture of Ober’s opera ‘Fenela’ was performed till the beginning of the spectacle, and during the entr’acte, Malagan’s symphony. This has been the first precedent of performance of symphonic music on the stage assigned to opera. Further on it has even become a tradition. Thus, spectacles were staged in Tbilisi even before the appearance of the first permanent theatre. Vorontsov has invited artists from the Empire Theatre, too. Afterwards representations were translated into the Georgian language, too. On the 2nd January 1850 there was staged the comedy by Giorgi Eristavi, ‘Separation’. Simultaneously to these processes there were going on constructions of the permanent opera theatre in Tbilisi. With the initiative of Vorontsov on 15th April 1847 there were laid the foundations of the building of the opera theatre, which lasted 4 years under the guidance of the Italian Architect, Antonio Scudieri and ended in 1851. The theatre was built on the central square of the city of Tbilisi (the modern Liberty Square, the territory next to the municipality). Under the conditions of very “motley” (from the musical point of view) town folklore, the Tbilisi opera theatre has become an important hearth of the cultural life of the country. The first opera theatre in the whole Transcaucasus, which held 800 spectators, stood out by its façade and inner interior, by its architectural shape amongst the European theatres of those times. On the 12th April 1851 the theatre was opened with a grandiose banquet, which was attended by the high circles of the society of Tbilisi. After several months from this event in one of the popular Parisian newspaper, ‘Illustrations’ (issue of 25th October 1851) there was printed a large article by Edmond de Bares with two pictures of the inner view of the theatre. The author wrote: ‘This is the only theatre in the city, the interior of which is totally made in Moresque, is doubtlessly one of the most elegant, beautiful and fascinating theatrical constructions, the perception of which is possible by a human being’. In spring of 1851 an Italian opera group was invited to Tbilisi under the conductorship of Barbieri, then very famous conductor, who performed twelve opera performances during three months. In this connection the orchestra was enriched with new instruments, notes. Foreign orchestra performers have come to Tbilisi and some of them have settled here. On 9th November 1851 the first theatrical season was opened in Tbilisi. There was staged ‘Lucia di Lammermoor’ by Gaetano Donizetti. After the graduation of the spectacle, which had a grandiose success, the hosts lead the Barbieri’s group and the society, collected in the evening in the opera, to the left bank of Mtkvari. The spectacle that grew into the public feast, was displaced directly onto the river Mtkvari, where people on ferries feasted the opening of opera in Tbilisi during the whole night. Airs from Italian opera was altered till morning by local town folk sounds of music. The first performance was followed by ‘Ernan’, ‘Norma’, ‘Il Barbiere di Seviglia’, and other operas.
Second half of the 19th century
This remarkable theatre has considerably elevated the common level of the cultural life in Tbilisi by newly staged opera spectacles. Amongst the Tbilisian music lovers Bellini, Donizetti, Rossini, Verdi (from the Italian composers) were the most popular. Opera spectacles, rich with beautiful ballet scenes and virtuous vocal technique had no chance but to attract the temperamental audience, which stood out by the emotional relationship to shows. They were fascinated by Meyerbeer’s ‘The Huguenots’, Halevi’s ‘Cardinal’s Daughter’ and Ober’s ‘Fenela’. Later in Tbilisi there used to be a great interest in the Georgian opera, namely, in the music by Richard Wagner. It is also remarkable that each highly artistic opera work, created in Europe, was staged in Tbilisi opera theatre in one or two years after its appearance. Tbilisi had ‘opera-mania’ actually in the second half of the 19th century. These circumstances played a decisive role in the formation of an opera team, which was necessary to implement full-value performances. With this aim in 1852 on the second season already a Russian ballet group was invited from St. Petersburg, who offered the spectators a part from the II act of Tallion’s ballet ‘Sylphida’ and various dances on 5th October 1852. This was the first ballet performance at the stage of the Tbilisi opera theatre. And the first complete ballet spectacle here was Schmidt’s bellet ‘Gitana’, staged by ballet-master Manokhin, premiere of which was realized on 18th January 1894. The theatre didn’t limit itself with opera spectacles only and in summer 1860 the orchestra with the conductorship of Shening and Catani performed concerts in the biggest by those times Mushtaidi park, as well as in other places in Tbilisi. On 11th October 1874 the Tbilisi opera theatre was so abominated by the fire that practically not a single decoration, suit, item was saved and the rich musical library was destroyed, too. In spite of this fact, the group didn’t stop working and temporarily went to the ‘summer stage’. This period lasted 22 years. Tbilisi cultural life kept being enriched by new memorable events. A Russian opera group has started working at the stage of the theatre; there were staged Piotr Tchaikovsky’s, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov’s, Anton Rubinstein’s operas. Improvement of the artistic level of the theatre was further supported by the work of another Russian composer, Ipolitov-Ivanov, who used to direct the theatre in 1883-1893. Of great importance for the Georgian culture were five visits of Tchiakovsky to Georgia in 1886-1890. The great Russian composer was always delighted by the relationship of the Georgian society towards the opera, and towards the academic music, in general. He expressly accentuated the live interest to his operas in Georgia: ‘My operas are staged here more often and they are more beloved here than elsewhere’. In the 80-ies of the 19th century the concert life of the city was especially busy. Famous performers: Gal, Pat, Bardzi, Masini, Kubelick, Tchaikovsky, Rubinstein, Rachmaninov, Zarudnaia, Yakovlev, Usatov used to give concerts in Tbilisi. The pupil of the last, the great Russian singer, Fyodor Shalyapin received his ‘stage baptism’ in Tbilisi.
New building of the Theatre
In 1896 on the Golovin prospect (now Rustaveli Avenue) there was finished the constructions of the new Opera Theatre projected by the architect Schreter. The new building was calculated to hold 1200 spectators (This is the modern building of the Opera Theatre). This so called ‘Treasury Theatre’ was opened on 3rd November 1896 by Glinka’s opera ‘Ivan Susanin’. This stage was implemented by a Russian opera group, owing to the repertoire of which the Georgian society got acquainted to the opera works of Russian composers. Famous opera and ballet groups used to perform on this stage at various times: Italian Opera (1897-1898, 1910), Vienna Empire Operetta (1903), Moscow and St. Petersburg comic operas (1907), St. Petersburg Empire Ballet (1907-1908, 1913). There used to sing the brilliant singers of the 19th and 20th centuries: Shalyapin, Sibiryakov, Mozzhukhin, Davidov, Sobinov, etc. It is remarkable that the Tbilisi Philharmonic Society, founded in 1905, has implemented the staging of Russian and West European operas in the Georgian language. This fact supported to the further democratization of the opera art and, accordingly, used to attract wide layers of the population. All this, together with the Georgian singing and poetic traditions, contributed the creation of the Georgian national opera, connected with the first stage of the history of new Georgian professional music. The first Georgian opera, presented on the stage of the Tbilisi Opera Theatre, was Gogniashvili’s ‘Kristine’ (17th June 1918). Though the first classic examples of this genre are believed to be the operas staged in 1919 on the stage of the Tbilisi Opera Theatre: on the 5th February, Dimitry Arakishvili’s ‘Legend of Shota Rustaveli’, on 21st February, Zakaria Paliashvili’s ‘Abesalom and Eteri’, on 11th December, Victor Dolidze’s ‘Keto and Kote’. The first Georgian opera is connected with the name of Meliton Balanchivadze. Fragments of his opera, ‘Tamar Tsbieri’ (Tamar the insidious) was staged on 20th December 1897 in St. Petersburg, though entirely it was staged only in 1925-1926 in Tbilisi Opera Theatre. These operas from the very first representations have determined the national image of the Georgian Opera Theatre. 1937 the Tbilisi Theatre of Opera and Ballet bears the name of the Georgian classicist, Zakaria Paliashvili.
Since the 30-ies of the 20th century Georgian operas expanded beyond the borders of Georgia. From now on they were staged not only on the stage of the Tbilisi Opera Theatre, but also abroad (in Russia, the Ukraine, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Poland, Germany, Bulgaria, Czechia, Slovakia). In 1966 the Tbilisi Opera Theatre has took part in the International Festival held in Hungary, ‘Segedi’s International Plays’ and in the IV International Music Festival of Paris in France, where Aleksi Machavariani’s ‘Otello’ and David Toradze’s ‘Gorda’ were presented. With the initiative of the great friend of Georgia, Herman Wedekind, in Saarbrueken in 1974 during the days of the Georgian culture the Georgian creative group has performed ‘Abesalom and Eteri’ and ‘Daisi’ on the local stage.
Under the conductorship of Givi Azmaiparashvili premiere of the opera by Otar Taktakishvili, ‘Mindia’ was made. After the fire of 1973 the Theatre building was restored to its original form (architects: Medzmariashvili, Chachanidze). The authors of the reconstruction have succeeded to maintain the Eastern, pseudo-Moresque style of the building, which is created by arrowed arches, decorative towers, stalactitic decorations, ornamental patterns, etc. The hall of spectators of this Theatre holds 1065 people. Dimensions of the scenic portal are: 16 x 10 m. The scene has 4 mobile platforms. There are six repetition halls in the Theatre, amongst them three ballet, two opera and one orchestral hall. Construction of the orchestral pit with the lifted floor gives the opportunity to perform symphonic concerts. In the foyer of the Theatre there are remarkable halls, amongst them, a so called Red Hall, as well as mirror halls, where it is possible to gold meetings of various sorts as well as chamber concerts. In the repertoire of the Theatre together with the World’s classic opera and ballet chef-d’oeuvres there used to be present for years works by Georgian composers: Shalva Mshvelidze, Andria Balanchivadze, Aleksi Machavariani, Revaz Gabichvadze, Otar Taktakishvili, David Toradze, Revaz Lagidze, Bidzina Kvernadze, Gia Kancheli. Performances were staged by the directors: Giga Lortkipanidze, Gizo Zhordania, Guram Meliva, Robert Sturua, David Sakvarelidze; artists: Parnaoz Lapiashvili, Iuri Gegeshidze, Giorgi Aleqsi-Meskhishvili, Muraz Murvanidze. During the last years amongst the performers who came to tours there must be listed: Manuel Bertrand, Barry Anderson, Elene Obraztsova, Sergey Filin, San-Francisco’s group of ballet. in 1998-2002 the Artistic Director and chief conductor used to be the outstanding Georgian musician and public figure, Jansug Kakhidze. Artistic manufacturing workshops accompany the Theatre, fabricating models, scene decorations, suits necessary for the spectacles.
Outstanding Theatre Figures
the best representatives of the Georgian vocal school revealed their best characteristics, amongst them: Vano Sarajishvili, Sandro Inashvili, Niko Kumsiashvili, David Andguladze, Peter Amiranashvili, David Gamrekeli, David Mchedlishvili, Batu Kraveishvili, Nadezhda Kharadze, Nadezhda Tsomaia, Vera Davidova, Meri Nakashidze and many others. The Theatre is proud of such brilliant singers as: Lamara Chkonia, Medea Amiranashvili, Tamar Gurgenidze, Tsisana Tatishvili, Makvala Kasrashvili (http://www.belcanto.ru/kasrashvili.html), Zurab Anjaparidze, Nodar Andguladze, Zurab Sotkilava (http://www.belcanto.ru/sotkilava.html), Paata Burchuladze (http://www.burchuladze.net), Temur Gugushvili, Alexander Khomeriki, Liana Kalmakhelidze, Maia Tomadze, Jemal Mdivani, Imeri Kavsadze, Eldar Getsadze, Badri Maisuradze (http://www.maisuradze.com), Valeriano Gamgebeli (Spain), Lado Atanelashvili (Lado Ataneli, Germany, http://www.ataneli.com), Naira Glunchadze (Germany), Eteri Chkonia (Eteri Lamoris, Spain, http://www.eterilamoris.com), Iano Alibegashvili (Iano Tamari, Italy, http://www.iano-tamar.com), Nana Kavtarashvili (http://www.nanamiriani.com), who used to perform at various times and are still performing in the Tbilisi Opera and Ballet Theatre. Famous Georgian conductors used to work in the Tbilisi Opera and Ballet Theatre: Ivane Paliashvili, Eugene Mikeladze, Odyssey Dimitriadi, Vakhtang Paliashvili, Didim Mirtskhulava, Zakaria Khurodze, Jansug Kakhidze; directors: Alexander Tsutsunava, Kote Marjanishvili, Sandro Akhmeteli, Vakhtang Tabliashvili, Mikheil Tumanishvili, Giga Lortkipanidze; Set and Costume designers: V. Sidamon-Eristavi, Sergo Kobuladze, Tamar Abakelia, Simon (Soliko) Virsaladze, Ivan Askurava.
From 2004 up till now
Since 2004 the general Director is David Sakvarelidze. Artistic Director and Principal Conductor of the Opera is Zaza Azmaiparashvili, the Artistic Director of the Ballet is Nino Ananiashvili.
On the Basis of the competition, carried out in 2004, new forces have been invited to fill in 40 % of the group and 70 % of the orchestra. Nowadays 126 musicians are employed in the orchestra. Young concertmasters are invited to work in the Theatre, the number of soloist singers has been increased.
In 2004-2006 several premieres were implemented: Verdi’s “Aida”, “Requiem”, Donizetti’s “Don Pasquale”. Several other performances have been staged in a renewed form, namely, Mozart’s “Don Giovanni”, Pietro Mascagni’s ‘Cavalleria Rusticana’, Verdi’s “Don Carlo”, “Un Ballo in Maschera”, the ballets: three one-act ballets (“A moment till Transformation”, “Reen”, “Dreams of Japan”), Ludwig Minkus’s “Don Quixote”, Felix Mendelssohn’s “Summer Night’s Dream”, Leonard Bernstein’s “Leah”, George Balanchini’s one-act ballets, as well as Tchaikovski’s “Swan Lake”, Ferdinand Herold’s “La Fille Mal Guardée”. There have been performed Lado Ataneli’s Jubilee Concerto “10 Years on the Stages of the World”, Otar Taktakishvili’s and Maia Tomadze’s Remembrance Jubilee Evenings. Eteri and Nato Chkonias, together with the orchestra of the Theatre, have congratulated the new 2006 year to the broad Society. In one of the representations of Mozart’s “Don Giovanni” main roles were played by Italian singers.
One of the most successful projects has proved to be Verdi’s “Aida”, in which the famous Georgian singers, who worked abroad, have gathered together: Tea Demurishvili, Valeriano Gamgebeli, Diana Vashakmadze, Irine Ratiani, Nana Kavtarashvili, Mzia Nioradze, Irakli Grigalashvili. The Georgian singers, working abroad, were also engaged in Mascagni’s ‘Cavalleria Rusticana’ and in other concerts performed in the Theatre.
The fact that the Theatre has become the member of the international organization, ‘Opera Europa’, as well as of the Association of Musical Theatres of the countries of CIS, have created solid guarantees of its participation on the international level, thus opening perspectives of the development of the Theatre in many directions.
The Theatre has invited permanently the foreign singer, Elena Putilova, the tenor working abroad, Gia Oniani, soprano, Irine Ratiani, contrabassist, Alexandre Khaindrava. As a result of the assistance of the Embassy of Italy, there has become possible to invite Italian singers and conductor, Danielle Agimani, Manlio Benci, as well as the Artistic Director of ‘La Scala’, Lucca Targetti. The USA Embassy has mediated the visit of the manager of the Metropolitan Opera, Steven Brown to the Theatre by a special fortnight programme.
There must be emphasized the collaboration of the Theatre and the fund, founded by Paata Burchuladze, ‘Iavnana’. This collaboration has made possible to realize several important projects in the Theatre of Opera and Ballet. First of all, there is remarkable the tour of genial Ferruccio Furlanetto. The singer was presented in Verdi’s “Don Carlo”. As a result of Paata Burchuladze’ solicitation, Vienna ‘Staadts Opera’ has presented decorations of Puccini’s “Manon Lescot”, Mozart’s “Cosi fan tutte”, and San Diego Theatre, decorations of Gounod’s “Faust” to the Tbilisi Theatre of Opera and Ballet.
In 2004-2006 the Theatre has made charity spectacles for more than 30 organizations, amongst them for the patrol police, first year students, veterans of war, refugees from Abkhazia and Samachablo.
Since January string quartet is functioning in the Theatre, successful presentation of which has been held on 2nd April 2006 (Red Hall). Since 2006 the Chamber Orchestra is also functioning in the Theatre, successful presentation of which has been held on 11 th April 2006 (Conductor Gogi Tchitchinadze). In the museum of the Theatre the information database is being prepared, there is running the process of fund-rising. Regular exhibitions of various contents were complete innovation. Informative and programme booklets were prepared for the premieres and restored spectacles. Bilingual web-site of the Theatre is prepared and is already in the Internet (www.opera.ge).
Mechanism of advance reservation of tickets has been improved and became mobile for private persons as well as for entire organizations.
Importance of the Theatre, as of the social institute has been increased considerably. This was generally connected with the maintenance of active monitoring. The obvious proof of this process is the elucidation of professional activities of the Theatre in its 153rd and 154th seasons in up to 500 newspaper articles and in regular reports of information services of various TV companies.
On 10th May 2005 the group of the Theatre has taken part in the event held on the Liberty Square in connection of the visit of the President of America to Tbilisi.
Many organizations have expressed the wish of joint partnership in the development of the Theatre. The expression of their wish has been sponsorships and charities or various kinds. Till the end of the 154th season there is planned the realization of the following opera performances: Otar Taktakishvili’s “Mindia” and Verdi’s “Il Trovatore”. The last performance is being prepared according to the custom of the Swedish part, pre-conditioned during the official visit of the President of Georgia in Sweden. On 8-12 August 2006 there is planned the tour of the Theatre to the Dalhala Opera Music Festival, on which the group of the Theatre shall be presented by Verdi’s opera “Il Trovatore” and Saint-Saens’s opera, “Samson et Dalila” (concert performance), conducted by Zaza Azmaiparashvili. In November 2006 there is planned to stage Leoncavallo’s “Pagliacci” (“The Clowns”). Strategic importance is assigned to joint production with Turkey and Azerbaijan and to the implementation of exchange programmes, planned for 2007.
History of the State ballet of Georgia
For the second season of the newly opened Theatre, in 1852, St. Petersburg Ballet Company arrived in Tbilisi; representing the Company among others were T. Chernova, Anna Pavlova, Fedor Manokhin and E. Panov, who presented the second act of Talion’s ballet Sylphida and Polka-Vengerka. This was the first ballet performance in Tbilisi. One year later Fedor Manokhin staged the second act of Giselle. The first full-version ballet followed in 1854, by Manokhin again; the piece was F. Tallion’s three-act ballet Gitana-The Spanish Gipsy. Unfortunately, due to the lack of finances, he returned to the Bolshoi Theatre in summer of 1854. In the eighties and nineties of the 19th century performing in Tbilisi was St. Petersburg Emperor Ballet Theatre; representing the Theatre were E. Gillper, Sofia Fedorova, Isedora Duncan, Vera and Mikhail Fokins. Here in Tbilisi Mikhail Fokin was staging his first innovatory ballets, which then brought him the recognition in Paris, on the Diagilev Seasons.
The stage of Tbilisi Opera And Ballet State Theatre was the venue for the foreign debut of Maria Perini, pupil of Italian dancer Enrico Cecchetti She presented the 32 fouette to the Georgian audience for the first time and showed them the level of ballet art abroad. Perrini had been performing on the Tbilisi Theatre during the 1897-1907 period, after which she took the concert and educational work. The creation of the Georgian ballet school is associated with her name; she founded the first choreographical studio for the classical dances. Maria Perrini lived in Georgia for 48 years and considered it as her second homeland. Her methods of classical teaching and the generations she left prepared a solid foundation for the creation of Georgian ballet. Before returning to Italy in 1936, she attended the first Georgian ballet, staged by her pupil Vakhtang Chabukiani and it became clear to her that Georgian ballet was in safe hands.
Andria Balanchivadze’s Mzechabuki (Heart of Mountains in the following performances) is the first Georgian ballet and was staged by Chabukiani. The Ballet, based on the Georgian folklore expressing the thrive towards freedom, represents the heroic tendencies and strengthens the male character’s dancing, as it introduces more energy and freedom to it. The same principles have been applied to Chabukiani’s editions of Don Quixote, Baiadera, Swan Lake, and Giselle.
Vakhtang Chabukiani graduated the Leningrad Choreographic School in 1929, then worked in the Kirov Opera And Ballet (Maria) Theatre and performed all the leading roles from the classical repertoire. He staged the Heart of Mountains in Maria Theatre after the Tbilisi performance; A. Krein’s ballet Laurencia was his next success, staged in Kirov in 1939. The work is based on Lope de Vega’s piece “Fuente Ovejuna” The leading roles were performed by Natalia Dudinskaya (Laurencia) and Vakhtang Chabukiani (Frondoso) himself. Chabukiani returned to Tbilisi in 1941 and managed the Opera And Ballet State Theatre’s Ballet Company until 1973, working as the Director of The Tbilisi Choreographic School at the same time and raising the generations of Georgian ballet.
In his works a strict classical style and masterful technique, soft jump and energetic pirouettes, inner expression and burning temperament joined each other. He introduced the male dancer’s new performing style with innovative characters. This style has had a great influence on the dancers’ and choreographers’ generations to follow.
The peak of Chabukiani’s career was Othello, the choreography of which, together with role Othello, belongs to him. His partners at different periods were Maia Plisetskaya, Raisa Struchkova, Marina Semenova, Iza Shelest, Natalia Dudinskaya, Beryl Gray, Ivette Shovire. On the Tbilisi stage he was permanently partnered by the legendary Vera Tsignadze. Tsignadze – the Desdemona – recalls that “Chabukiani’s performances were not just a dance, it was something that grasped you completely.”. Their creative duo stayed on the stage for years and created unforgettable characters for Giselle, Othello, Gorda.
In the beginning of seventies the Ballet Company had a new artistic director – Mr. Gogi Aleksidze, Feodor Lopoukhov’s pupil, who founded the “Young Ballet” innovatory group in Leningrad during the 1992-1924 years. Raised on Lopoukhov’s ideas and innovations, Aleksidze brought a new esthetics to the Theatre. Neoclassical ballets became the part of repertoire alongside the classical works. Among these were Chaconne by Bach, Classical Symphony by Prokofiev, Les Petits Riens by Mozart, The Four Seasons by Vividly, Orestea by Falik, Variations by Chopin and also – Berikaoba by B. Kvernadze, Svaneti Legend & Antique Sketches by S. Tsintsadze, Medea by R. Gabichvadze, Georgian Siuita by O. Taktakishvili, Firosmani by S. Nasidze, Amazons by V. Kakhidze, Diplipito by G. Kancheli. During his time in the Theatre Aleksidze created numerous choreographic miniatures and one-act ballets that had been presented on the evenings of symphonic dances and neoclassical ballets.
The Company’s next artistic director (through 1982-1985) was Mikhail Lavrovsky, widely-known Bolshoi Theatre dancer and choreographer. Under his directorship several interesting ballets were staged – his own version of Prokofiev’s Romeo and Juliet and Gershvin’s Porgy and Bess, where he performed the leading roles himself.
Since 2004, Nina Ananiashvili has been The Artistic Director of The Ballet Company. The Company struggled under the problems and difficulties, which she managed to overcome with intensive everyday work; twenty-seven ballets and miniatures, were staged in three seasons, which is an incredible number. One of Ananiashvili’s main goals was to introduce various choreographic styles and trends alongside the classical. Now you can find George Balanchine’s ten ballets in the repertoire and among them is Bugaku, which you will not see on any other stage except that of New York City Ballet. Company’s potential has been better displayed with Balanchine’s ballets and technical side, with performing manner, has become more definite. But Balanchine is not the only choreographer whose works have been brought into the repertoire – Aleksey Ratmansky’s Dreams About Japan, Lea, Bizet Variation, Tray McIntyre’s Second Before The Ground and Midsummer Night’s Dream (the world premiere of which took place in Tbilisi), Stanton Welsh’s Green Iuri Posokhov’s Sagalobeli – all of them have been staged under Ananiashvili’s directorship. There have been numerous collaborations – two Pas De Deux and Bournonville’s Conservatory have been prepared with the Danish Royal Theatre, La Fille Mal Gardee and Two Pigeons of F. Ashton have been done as the result of the cooperation with Covent Garden; new editions of Swan Lake, Giselle, Don Quixote, alongside Leonid Lavrovsky’s Romeo and Juliet, are other examples of international repertoire; collaborations with Frank Andersen, Alexander Grant, Bart Cooke, Denis Bonner, Margarette Barbierre, Tray McIntyre, Aleksey Fadeyechev, Ben Stevenson; master classes are systematically provided by Irina Kolpakova, Maerie Calegari, Eva Kloborg, Emilio Martins, Tatiana Rastorgueva, Andrey Kudelin, Dimitri Korneev, Iulia Malkhasiants; costumes and decorations are prepared by Aleksander Vasiliev, Viacheslav Okunev, David Monavardisashvili, Natia Sirbiladze, Mikheil Makharadze, Ana Kalatozishvili; performances are often conducted by Sergey Stadler, Aleksander Sotnikov, Robert Cole; working with the Company are the leading soloists and currently Ballet masters – Marina Aleksidze, Irine Jandieri, Svetlana Gochiashvili, Liliana Mitaishvili, Nukri Magalashvili, Maia Zurashvili. On the stage of the Theatre often perform Andrey Uvarov, Sergei Filin, Igor Zelensky, Maria Aleksandrova, Nadejda Grachova, Galina Stepanenko, and Sebastian Kloborg.